In this article I make an attempt to share my understanding of functional programming and how it can help in improving your daily work.

If you are one of those who build software solutions for everyday business problems, there is a high chance that you might be using an object oriented language to build high quality and maintainable software. Like me, you might also be exploring new ways to continuously improve yourself in building software. Lately with most of the languages supporting the programming paradigm of functional programming, it is being talked about a lot. Let’s see how it helps in writing better code.

Current style of writing code

I will begin with an example. Although the example has been made simple enough to reflect clearly the idea being discussed, yet it covers most of the tasks a programmer comes across on a normal work day. Also I have selected the language as Java but this is applicable to any other language.

Suppose you have to implement a functionality to filter from a list of products that have price less than 200.

public List<Product> findProductsWithPriceLessThan200(final List<Product> products) {
  List<Product> filteredProducts = new ArrayList<>();
  for (Product product : products) {
    if (product.getPrice() < 200) filteredProducts.add(product);
  return filteredProducts;

On careful observation of the above code, we can see that the following has been done:

  1. Initializing a list filteredProducts to hold the products satisfying the criteria
  2. Creating a loop to iterate over the list of products
  3. Apply the filtering criteria
  4. Adding the products passing the criteria to the filtered list
  5. Returning the filtered list

Firstly, the above mentioned steps of initializing a list, looping and adding to a list are a set of instructions given to the computer to solve the problem at hand. Clearly we see that the focus has been shifted from what to do to how to do. Secondly, the mutable variable filteredProducts can cause problems when the complexity of the code increases.

The functional way of writing code

Now let’s see how we can implement the functionality using functional programming paradigm. This is possible in Java 8.

public List<Product> findProductsWithPriceLessThan200(final List<Product> products) {
  return products
            .filter(product -> product.getPrice() < 200)

Again on careful observation of the above code, we can see that the following has been done:

  1. Create a stream
  2. Apply the filtering criteria
  3. Return the collected products that satisfied the filter

You might have noticed that in this form of implementation the focus is on what to do. The how to do part is taken care of by the language platform. This also gives a chance to the language platform to perform optimizaitons. For example the streams are lazy, which means that computations on source elements are done only when necessary. Moreover we can see that we could also do away with the mutability, thus reducing the chances of errors due to it.


Thus we can see that using the functional programming paradigm we get to focus on what to do which, we as software solution builders should do. Though I showcased only a few benefits of thinking or practicing functional programming among umpteen of them, I think I was able to generate your interest towards considering functional programming as an addition to your daily job.